10-29-2014, 03:47 PM
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Both games on ONE DISK!!!
Classic rare game in working shape. Used but not abused. Packing may have light wear as seen from being opening etc. Only comes with what is seen. Disk is a 8 or 9/10 but packing is a 5 or 6/10 due to opining.
This Is A Must For The Person That Loves The Old Games That Started It All.
Please look at photos in detail!
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USED IN GOOD CONDITION. Packaging is opened and all is still in great shape. Not mint or brand new, but very nice. Packing may have light wear or more. Disk is is amazing shape. Comes with all seen and only what is seen. Instructions are normally included on disk. This is a shareware pc item but is pretty much the same and should play about the same. Make sure you know what you are buying and are able to play this game on your computer.
Duke Nukem is a video game series focusing on its protagonist Duke Nukem. Originally created by Apogee Software Ltd./3D Realms as a series of video games for the PC, the franchise expanded to games released for various consoles by third party developers. In 2010 the rights of the franchise were acquired by Gearbox Software, who completed the development of Duke Nukem Forever and released it on 10 June 2011 in Europe and Australia and on 14 June 2011 in North America.The voice actor for Duke Nukem is Jon St. John.Contents1 Games1.1 Main series1.2 Spin-offs1.3 Portable games1.4 Cancelled games1.5 Duke Nukem Forever1.6 Duke Begins2 Other media2.1 Soundtrack2.2 Proposed feature film2.3 Comic series2.4 Merchandise3 Reception4 ReferencesGamesMain seriesTitle Year released PlatformsDuke Nukem 1991 MS-DOS, Steam (Windows OS X) (2013)Duke Nukem II 1993 MS-DOS, Game Boy Color (1999), iOS (2013), Steam (Windows OS X) (2013)Duke Nukem 3D 1996 MS-DOS, Game.com (1997), Mac OS (1997), Sega Saturn (1997), PlayStation (1997), Nintendo 64 (1997), Sega Mega Drive (Brazil only) (1998), Xbox Live Arcade (2008), iOS (2009), Android (2011), Steam (Windows, OS X Linux) (2013), PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita (2014)Duke Nukem Forever 2011 Microsoft Windows, OS X, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360The original game was released as Duke Nukem in 1991 as a two dimensional platform game, which was IBM PC compatible, and featured 320×200, 16-color EGA graphics with vertical and horizontal scrolling. The original game had three episodes, the first distributed as shareware. The first Duke Nukem game was titled Duke Nukem, but Apogee learned that this name might have already been trademarked for the Duke Nukem character in Captain Planet and the Planeteers, so they changed it to Duke Nukum for the 2.0 revision. The name was later determined not to be trademarked, so the spelling Duke Nukem was restored for Duke Nukem II and all successive Duke games.For Duke Nukem II, the sequel was over four times larger and took advantage of 256-color VGA graphics, MIDI music, and digitized sound. Only 16 colors were actually used onscreen at once; however, three different 16-color palettes were used in the game.The third game in the series was the first-person shooter (FPS) titled Duke Nukem 3D and was released in 1996. Like most FPS games of the day, Duke Nukem 3D featured three-dimensional environments with two-dimensional sprites standing in for weapons, enemies, and breakable background objects. Duke Nukem 3D was released for MS-DOS, Mac OS, PlayStation, Sega Saturn, game.com, Mega Drive, Nintendo 64, and later re-released in 2008 for Xbox Live Arcade, and for the iPhone/iPod Touch and Nokia N900 in 2009. Duke Nukem 3D is perhaps the most recognized Duke Nukem game, with over a dozen expansion packs.Spin-offsTitle Year released PlatformsDuke Nukem: Time to Kill 1998 PlayStationDuke Nukem: Zero Hour 1999 Nintendo 64Duke Nukem: Land of the Babes 2000 PlayStationDuke Nukem: Manhattan Project 2002 Microsoft Windows, Xbox Live Arcade (2010), Steam (Windows OS X) (2013), iOS (2014)Portable gamesTitle Year released PlatformsDuke Nukem Advance 2002 Game Boy AdvanceDuke Nukem Mobile 2004 Tapwave ZodiacDuke Nukem Mobile 2004 Mobile phoneDuke Nukem Mobile II: Bikini Project 2005 Mobile phoneDuke Nukem: Critical Mass 2011 Nintendo DSiCancelled gamesOne of the first projects to be announced after the success of Duke Nukem 3D was a return to Duke’s 2D side-scrolling, platforming roots in a game called Duke Nukem 4Ever. The project was led by Keith Schuler, lead designer and programmer on Paganitzu and Realms of Chaos, and a level designer on the Plutonium Pack.The 2D Forever was planned to mesh many of the new concepts of Duke Nukem 3D with the old-style play of the first two games in the series. Duke’s look, personality and armory from the recent shooter would be matched with run and gun platforming, with a few new objects, including a cloaking device and five-piece weapon called the "heavy barrel," added in. Players would face off against Dr. Proton’s minions, the Protonite cyborgs, along with other level-specific grunt enemies. Each episode would end with a boss fight, with the last one fought against Proton himself. Development on Duke Nukem 4Ever stalled in the middle of 1996 when Keith Schuler was reassigned to work on maps for the Duke Nukem 3D expansion pack. The game’s cancellation wasn’t publicly announced until 1997, at a time when 3D Realms had decided to reuse the name for their sequel to Duke Nukem 3D. After cancellation, the game went on to become a new game called Ravager, and that project was then sold to developer called Inner Circle Creations, who renamed it and released the title as Alien Rampage in 1996.Duke Nukem: Endangered Species was announced in January 2001. It was designed to be a hunting game where the player could hunt everything from dinosaurs to snakes, using an improved version of the engine used in the Carnivores series. The game was cancelled in December of that year. The company that had been developing the game, Ukraine-based developer Action Forms, went on to develop its own game, Vivisector: Beast Within (originally titled Vivisector: Creatures of Doctor Moreau) instead.A PlayStation 2 game called Duke Nukem D-Day (also known as Duke Nukem: Man of Valor), was announced in 1999. It was renowned for having had one of the longest development cycles of any title in the PlayStation 2's considerable history. Long-rumored to implement the same technology that powered the PC version of Unreal, the game sometimes erroneously referred to as Duke Nukem Forever PS2 (this console title was not to be a part of the PC game and, instead, was a new creation by developer n-Space), consistently battled crippling delays, often putting in question its status as an active or cancelled game. The project was finally abandoned in 2003.Legal wrangling between 3D Realms and Take 2 Interactive over the non-delivery of Duke Nukem Forever after 3D Realms laid off all development staff in 2009, revealed that the two companies had agreed on the production of a console-targeted Duke game in October 2007. 3D Realms accepted the deal in exchange for a $2.5 million advance on royalties in order to continue to fund development of Duke Nukem Forever. Gearbox Software was later revealed to be the developer of the game.Duke Begins was a cancelled game that was the subject of litigation, but few details exist as to what was intended. From the name of the game and the court filings, the title was possibly intended to be an origin story, illustrating how Duke came to be the ego-driven ass kicker that he is. Development on the title began within two months of the October 2007 agreement, with the intention of a mid-2010 release. 3D Realms alleged in court filings that the title was put on hold in April 2009 in order to deny them royalties to pay back the $2.5 million advance. Whether Duke Begins was put on hold after 3D Realms approached Take 2 to request $US6 million to finish Duke Nukem Forever is yet to be confirmed.Gearbox Software has since shifted to working on Duke Nukem Forever after finalising a deal with 3D Realms to acquire the unfinished game and the rights to the Duke Nukem franchise.When Duke Nukem Trilogy was announced in 2008, it was intended for release on the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable (PSP). Each game in the series was to have two versions that shared the same story – the Nintendo DS game was a side-scrolling affair, while the PSP version was to be a third-person shooter not unlike Duke Nukem: Time to Kill. The PSP version was said to be the more adult-oriented of the two games. It is unknown precisely when the PSP versions of the Duke Nukem Trilogy games were cancelled, but the drawn-out development of the title, low quality of the game and the poor sales of PSP software since 2008 were likely factors.An HD remake of Duke Nukem II was in the planning stages at one time.Duke Nukem ForeverMain article: Duke Nukem ForeverThe most recent installment in the video game series, Duke Nukem Forever, was in development hell for over a decade after the initial announcement in April 1997. Promotional information for the game was released in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2007, 2008 and 2009. As a result, the title was subject to intense speculation and won several vaporware awards.The development team was terminated in May 2009 but, according to 3D Realms, the project was not officially cancelled and the game was still in development. Although Take-Two Interactive owned the publishing rights to the game, they did not have an agreement with 3D Realms to provide funding for its continuation, and a lawsuit was filed by Take-Two Interactive against 3D Realms over their failure to finish development of the game. The lawsuit reached a settlement in May 2010.Gearbox Software bought the rights to and intellectual property of the franchise and started work on the project in 2009. A playable demo was shown at Penny Arcade Expo (PAX), where the release timeframe was announced as 3 May 2011, in the U.S., and 6 May internationally on Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and PC.On 21 January 2011, an official release trailer was unveiled by 2K Games with a confirmed release date of 3 May 2011 for North America. On 24 March 2011, 2K Games sent out a statement that "Duke Never Comes Early" to announce a delay until 10 June in North America. On 5 May 2011, the Steam network started selling the game, which became officially available in June 2011. An OS X version was released in August 2011.Duke BeginsThe October 2011 edition of the Official Xbox Magazine reported that Gearbox Software planned to reboot the Duke Nukem franchise once Aliens: Colonial Marines was complete and out the door. The series, which began back in 1991 with the original Duke Nukem PC game developed by Apogee Software, would relaunch with the long-discussed Duke Begins on an unspecified date.Other mediaSoundtrackSeveral Duke Nukem games contained popular tracks from well-known bands, and a greatest hits album titled Duke Nukem: Music to Score By was released in 1999, with the following track listing:Duke Nukem Theme - MegadethCinnamon Girl - Type O Negative (previously unreleased in U.S.)What U See Is What U Get - XzibitBlisters - Coal Chamber (previously unreleased in U.S.)Song 10 - ZebraheadThe Thing I Hate - Stabbing WestwardPush it - Static XIt's Yourz - Wu-Tang ClanScreaming from the Sky - SlayerNew World Order - Megadeth (previously unreleased)Stone Crazy - The BeatnutsLand of the Free Disease - Corrosion of Conformity (previously unreleased)The pre-release game trailer of Duke Nukem Forever uses "The Stroke" by Mickey Avalon.Proposed feature filmIn the late 1990s, it was announced that Hollywood film producer Lawrence Kasanoff (Mortal Kombat, Class of 1999) was working on a Duke Nukem film. The plot was to feature aliens invading Duke's favorite strip club. Kasanoff's Duke Nukem film never advanced past the pre-production phase for numerous reasons, primarily funding issues.Plans were announced in 2001 for a live action Duke Nukem movie to be produced by Kasanoff's company Threshold Entertainment, but the film never made it to production.In 2008, Max Payne producer Scott Faye revealed to IGN.com that he was planning to bring Duke Nukem to the big screen. Faye, who runs production company Depth Entertainment, said he hoped to compliment these with "a Duke film scenario that will compel a studio to finance a feature version ... Certainly, there's a large audience that knows and loves this character. We're expanding Duke's 'storyverse' in a very significant major way without abandoning or negating any element that's being used to introduce Duke to the next-gen platforms."In mid-2009, an interview on Gamasutra revealed that a Duke Nukem movie was currently in pre-production. To-date, there has been no further news or information regarding the film.Comic seriesA comic series titled Duke Nukem: Glorious Bastard was released in July 2011 by IDW. The series features Duke Nukem traveling back to the Second World War, to help the allies defeat the Nazis and aliens.MerchandiseDuke Nukem was a short-lived toy line from defunct toy company ReSaurus. Primarily centered on Duke Nukem 3D, the line featured three versions of Duke (with a fourth "Internet only" Duke that came with a CD-ROM and freezethrower accessory), the Pigcop, Octabrain, and Battlelord. The toys were prone to breakage (Duke's legs were held on by a thin plastic rod which was easy to snap and the Octabrain had numerous fragile points). More toys were planned to coincide with the release of Duke Nukem Forever, but the game's delay halted production of the toys, and ReSaurus eventually went out of business. At Toyfair 2011, NECA revealed a new series of Duke Nukem Forever action figures with more details and articulation than the previous series from 1997.In 2012, Sideshow collectibles announced a new collectible statue based on Duke Nukem as he appeared in Duke Nukem Forever. The statue was released in April 2013.ReceptionAggregate review scoresAs of May 21, 2011. Game GameRankings MetacriticDuke Nukem II (GBC) 73.31%(iOS) 48.00% (iOS) 50Duke Nukem 3D (PC) 88.50%(SAT) 82.50%(X360) 80.67%(N64) 74.33%(iOS) 63.80%(PS1) 59.33%(GEN) 50.00% (PC) 89(X360) 80(N64) 73Duke Nukem: Time to Kill (PS1) 75.27% (PS1) -Duke Nukem: Zero Hour (N64) 67.33% (N64) -Duke Nukem: Land of the Babes (PS1) 59.57% (PS1) 37Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project (PC) 77.46%(X360) 47.08% (PC) 78(X360) 41Duke Nukem Advance (GBA) 81.07% (GBA) 81Duke Nukem: Critical Mass (NDS) 37.33% (NDS) 29Duke Nukem Forever (X360) 49.36%(PC) 48.52%(PS3) 47.60% (PC) 54(PS3) 51(X360) 49This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011)The series has been generally popular since its inception. Duke Nukem and Duke Nukem II, along with Commander Keen, helped make the genre popular on the personal computer, as against games like Super Mario Bros. for video game consoles.The games broke out of the shareware niche and into the mainstream gamer audience with Duke Nukem 3D, which also brought the series to the forefront of video game controversy. The game, like others such as Star Wars: Dark Forces, was one of the first titles considered comparable to Doom. The Build engine used in Duke Nukem 3D has also become one of the most popular engines among developers. Duke Nukem 3D was controversial, because of its depictions of sexuality, pornography, obscenities, graphic violence, drug use, and other taboo topics. This caused the game to be banned in Brazil and, in other countries, the sale of the game was strictly regulated against purchase by minors. Despite this, Duke Nukem 3D was a commercial and critical success for 3D Realms.Duke Nukem Forever had been in development hell since 1997 until it was finally released on June 10, 2011. The exceedingly long wait had spawned a number of jokes related to its development timeline. The video game media and the public in general have routinely suggested several names in place of Forever, calling it: "Never", "(Taking) Forever", "Whenever", "ForNever", "Neverever", and "If Ever". Many fans[who?] have noted that the game's initials, "DNF", also stand for Did Not Finish, which is an acronym widely used in motorsports to denote cars which did not reach the finish line (usually due to mechanical failure or crash). Due to Duke Nukem games featuring many pop culture references, a joke on the development hell nightmare of Duke Nukem Forever's production was included in the title itself, where Duke is playing it himself within the game, and when asked if it was any good, commented, "After 12 fucking years, it should be!" The game has also won a wide variety of "vaporware awards".Although anticipation was high, Duke Nukem Forever received disparate reviews upon release from critics, with most of the criticism directed towards the game's clunky controls on consoles, shooting mechanics, and overall aging and dated design. The PR firm responsible for the game's publicity, The Redner Group, reacted to these reviews in a statement on the corporation's Twitter account. This comment appeared to threaten to withdraw access to review copies for future titles for reviewers who had been highly critical of the game. Head of the PR firm Jim Redner later apologized for and retracted this comment, and the original Twitter post has been deleted. Despite the apologies, Publisher 2K Games has officially dropped The Redner Group from representing its products.Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project, a spin-off from the main franchise released in 2002, generally received positive reviews in the video game press, with rankings around 7/10 and 80 out of 100. The game, however, did not sell as well as hoped, and its developer Sunstorm Interactive is no longer in existence. Duke Nukem Advance, which was also released in 2002 for the Game Boy Advance, did receive favorable reviews. Duke Nukem: Critical Mass, which was released the same year as Duke Nukem Forever and was developed for the Nintendo DS, received a negative reception.
Space Invaders (スペースインベーダー Supēsu Inbēdā?) is an arcade video game developed by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978. It was originally manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and was later licensed for production in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Space Invaders is one of the earliest shooting games and the aim is to defeat waves of aliens with a laser cannon to earn as many points as possible. In designing the game, Nishikado drew inspiration from popular media: Breakout, The War of the Worlds, and Star Wars. To complete it, he had to design custom hardware and development tools.It was one of the forerunners of modern video gaming and helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry (see golden age of video arcade games). When first released, Space Invaders was very successful.The game has been the inspiration for other video games, re-released on numerous platforms, and led to several sequels. The 1980 Atari 2600 version quadrupled the system's sales and became the first "killer app" for video game consoles. Space Invaders has been referenced and parodied in multiple television shows, and been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions. The pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon, often used as a synecdoche representing video games as a whole.Contents1 Gameplay2 Development2.1 Hardware3 Music4 Impact and legacy4.1 Remakes and sequels4.2 In popular culture4.2.1 Music4.2.2 Television4.2.3 Other5 See also6 References7 External linksGameplayA vertical rectangular video game screenshot that is a digital representation of a battle between aliens and a laser cannon. The white aliens hover above four green, inverted U-shaped blocks. Below the blocks is a smaller horizontal block with a triangle on its top.The player-controlled laser cannon shoots the aliens as they descend to the bottom of the screen.Space Invaders is a two-dimensional fixed shooter game in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it horizontally across the bottom of the screen and firing at descending aliens. The aim is to defeat five rows of eleven aliens—some versions feature different numbers—that move horizontally back and forth across the screen as they advance towards the bottom of the screen. The player defeats an alien, and earns points, by shooting it with the laser cannon. As more aliens are defeated, the aliens' movement and the game's music both speed up. Defeating the aliens brings another wave that is more difficult, a loop which can continue without end.The aliens attempt to destroy the cannon by firing at it while they approach the bottom of the screen. If they reach the bottom, the alien invasion is successful and the game ends. A special "mystery ship" will occasionally move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed. The laser cannon is partially protected by several stationary defense bunkers—the number varies by version—that are gradually destroyed by projectiles from the aliens and player.DevelopmentSpace Invaders was created by Tomohiro Nishikado, who spent a year designing the game and developing the necessary hardware to produce it. The game's inspiration is reported to have come from varying sources, including an adaptation of the mechanical game Space Monsters released by Taito in 1972, and a dream about Japanese school children who are waiting for Santa Claus and are attacked by invading aliens. However, Nishikado has cited Atari's arcade game Breakout as his inspiration. He aimed to create a shooting game that featured the same sense of achievement from completing stages and destroying targets, but with more complex graphics. Nishikado used a similar layout to that of Breakout, but altered the game mechanics. Rather than bounce a ball to attack static objects, players are given the ability to fire projectiles at their own discretion to attack moving enemies.Early enemy designs included tanks, combat planes, and battleships. Nishikado, however, was not satisfied with the enemy movements; technical limitations made it difficult to simulate flying. Humans would have been easier to simulate, but Nishikado considered shooting them immoral. After seeing a magazine feature about Star Wars, he thought of using a space theme. Nishikado drew inspiration for the aliens from H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds—he had watched the 1953 film adaptation as a child—and created initial bitmap images after the octopus-like aliens. Other alien designs were modeled after squids and crabs. The game was originally titled Space Monsters, inspired by a popular song in Japan at the time ("Monster"), but was changed to Space Invaders by Nishikado's superiors.HardwareBecause microcomputers in Japan were not powerful enough at the time to perform the complex tasks involved in designing and programming Space Invaders, Nishikado had to design his own custom hardware and development tools for the game. He created the arcade board using new microprocessors from the United States. The game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit, and features raster graphics on a CRT monitor and monaural sound hosted by a combination of analogue circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip. Despite the specially developed hardware, Nishikado was unable to program the game as he wanted—the Control Program board was not powerful enough to display the graphics in color or move the enemies faster—and he considered the development of the hardware the most difficult part of the whole process. While programming the game, Nishikado discovered that the processor was able to render the alien graphics faster the fewer were on screen. Rather than design the game to compensate for the speed increase, he decided to keep it as a challenging gameplay mechanic.A photograph of a close-up of an arcade screen. A video monitor rests at the bottom of the image, and the monitor's displayed graphics are reflected onto artwork of a grey moon surrounded by yellow and green colors. The reflected graphics display the phrase "Space Invaders".Mirrored display and cardboard background of a Midway Space Invaders Deluxe arcade cabinetSpace Invaders was first released in a cocktail-table format with black and white graphics, while the Western release by Midway was in an upright cabinet format. The upright cabinet uses strips of orange and green cellophane over the screen to simulate color graphics. The graphics are reflected onto a painted backdrop of a moon against a stary background. Later Japanese releases also used colored cellophane. The cabinet artwork features large, humanoid monsters not present in the game. Nishikado attributes this to the artist basing the designs on the original title, Space Monsters, rather than referring to the in-game graphics.MusicDespite its simplicity, the music to Space Invaders was revolutionary in the gaming industry. Videogame scholar Andrew Schartmann identifies three aspects of the music that would have a significant impact on the development of game music:Whereas videogame music prior to Space Invaders was restricted to the extremities (i.e., a short introductory theme with game-over counterpart), the alien-inspired hit featured continuous music—the well-known four-note loop—throughout, uninterrupted by sound effects. "It was thus the first time that sound effects and music were superimposed to form a rich sonic landscape. Not only do players receive feedback related directly to their actions through sound effects; they also receive stimulus in a more subtle, non-interactive fashion through music."The music interacts with on-screen animation to influence the emotions of the player. "That seemingly pedestrian four-note loop might stir us in the most primitive of ways, but that it stirs us at all is worthy of note. By demonstrating that game sound could be more than a simple tune to fill the silence, Space Invaders moved videogame music closer to the realm of art."The music popularized the notion of variability—the idea that music can change in accordance with the ongoing narrative. The variable in Space Invaders (tempo) is admittedly simple, but its implications are not to be underestimated. "Over the years, analogous strategies of variation would be applied to pitch, rhythm, dynamics, form, and a host of other parameters, all with the goal of accommodating the nonlinear aspect of videogames."At the deepest of conceptual levels, one would be hard-pressed to find an arcade game as influential to the early history of videogame music as Space Invaders. Its role as a harbinger of the fundamental techniques that would come to shape the industry remains more or less unchallenged. And its blockbuster success ensured the adoption of those innovations by the industry at large.— Andrew Schartmann, Maestro Mario: How Nintendo Transformed Videogame Music into an Art, Thought Catalog (2013)Impact and legacyAfter the first few months following its release in Japan, the game became very popular. Specialty arcades opened with nothing but Space Invaders cabinets, and by the end of 1978, Taito had installed over 100,000 machines and grossed over $600 million in Japan alone. Within two years by 1980, Taito had sold over 300,000 Space Invaders arcade machines in Japan, in addition to 60,000 machines in the United States, where prices ranged from $2000 to $3000 for each machine, within one year. The arcade cabinets have since become collector's items with the cocktail and cabaret versions being the rarest. By mid-1981, more than four billion quarters, or $1 billion, had been grossed from Space Invaders machines, and it would continue to gross an average of $600 million a year through to 1982, by which time it had grossed $2 billion in quarters (equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011), with a net profit of $450 million (equivalent to $1 billion in 2011). This made it the best-selling video game and highest-grossing entertainment product of its time, with comparisons made to the then highest-grossing film Star Wars, which had grossed $486 million in movie tickets (costing $2.25 each on average) with a net profit of $175 million. Space Invaders had earned Taito profits of over $500 million. The 1980 Atari 2600 version was the first official licensing of an arcade game and became the first "killer app" for video game consoles by quadrupling the system's sales. It sold over two million units in its first year on sale as a home console game, making it the first title to sell a million cartridges. Other official ports of the game were made for the Atari 8-bit computer line and Atari 5200 console. Taito released it for the NES in 1985 (Japan only). Numerous unofficial clones were made as well, such as the popular computer games Super Invader (1979) and TI Invaders (1981).An oft-quoted urban legend states that there was a shortage of 100-yen coins—and subsequent production increase—in Japan attributed to the game, although in actuality, 100-yen coin production was lower in 1978 and 1979 than in previous or subsequent years. The claim also doesn't hold up to logical scrutiny; arcade operators would have emptied out their machines and taken the money to the bank, thus keeping the coins in circulation. Reports from those living in Japan at the time indicate "nothing out of the ordinary ... during the height of the Space Invaders invasion."Game designer Shigeru Miyamoto considered Space Invaders a game that revolutionized the video game industry; he was never interested in video games before seeing it. Hideo Kojima also described it as the first video game that impressed him and got him interested in video games. Several publications ascribed the expansion of the video game industry from a novelty into a global industry to the success of the game. Edge magazine attributed the shift of video games from bars and arcades to more mainstream locations like restaurants and department stores to Space Invaders. Its popularity was such that it was the first game where an arcade machine's owner could make up for the cost of the machine in under one month, or in some places within one week.Technology journalist Jason Whittaker credited the game's success to ending the video game crash of 1977, which had earlier been caused by Pong clones flooding the market, and beginning the golden age of video arcade games. According to The Observer, the home console versions were popular and encouraged users to learn programming; many who later became industry leaders. 1UP.com stated that Space Invaders showed that video games could compete against the major entertainment media at the time: movies, music, and television. IGN attributed the launch of the arcade phenomenon in North America in part to Space Invaders. Electronic Games credited the game's success as the impetus behind video gaming becoming a rapidly growing hobby and as "the single most popular coin-operated attraction of all time." Game Informer considered it, along with Pac-Man, one of the most popular arcade games that tapped into popular culture and generated excitement during the golden age of arcades. IGN listed it as one of the "Top 10 Most Influential Games" in 2007, citing the source of inspiration to video game designers and the impact it had on the shooting genre. 1UP ranked it at No. 3 in its list of "The 60 Most Influential Games of All Time," stating that, in contrast to earlier arcade games which "were attempts to simulate already-existing things," Space Invaders was "the first video game as a video game, instead of merely a playable electronic representation of something else." In 2008, Guinness World Records listed it as the top-rated arcade game in technical, creative, and cultural impact.As one of the earliest shooting games, it set precedents and helped pave the way for future titles and for the shooting genre. Space Invaders popularized a more interactive style of gameplay with the enemies responding to the player controlled cannon's movement, and was the first video game to popularize the concept of achieving a high score, being the first to save the player's score. While earlier shooting games allowed the player to shoot at targets, Space Invaders was the first in which targets could fire back at the player. It was also the first game where players were given multiple lives, had to repel hordes of enemies, could take cover from enemy fire, and use destructible barriers, in addition to being the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack, with four simple diatonic descending bass notes repeating in a loop, which was dynamic and changed pace during stages, like a heartbeat sound that increases pace as enemies approached.It also moved the gaming industry away from Pong-inspired sports games grounded in real-world situations towards action games involving fantastical situations. Whittaker commented that Space Invaders helped action games become the most dominant genre on both arcades and consoles, through to contemporary times. Guinness World Records considered Space Invaders one of the most successful arcade shooting games by 2008. In describing it as a "seminal arcade classic", IGN listed it as the number eight "classic shoot 'em up". Space Invaders set the template for the shoot 'em up genre. Its worldwide success created a demand for a wide variety of science fiction games, inspiring the development of arcade games, such as Atari's Asteroids, Williams Electronics' Defender, and Namco's Galaxian and Galaga, which were modeled after Space Invaders's gameplay and design. This influence extends to most shooting games released to the present day, including first-person shooters such as Wolfenstein, Doom, Halo and Call of Duty. Space Invaders also had an influence on early computer dungeon crawl games such as Dungeons of Daggorath, which used similar heartbeat sounds to indicate player health.Remakes and sequelsIn Japan Epoch released a Space Invaders clone that could be played at home, the Epoch TV Vader, in 1980.Main article: List of Space Invaders video gamesSpace Invaders has been remade on numerous platforms and spawned many sequels. Re-releases include ported and updated versions of the original arcade game. Ported versions generally feature different graphics and additional gameplay options—for example, moving defense bunkers, zigzag shots, invisible aliens, and two-player cooperative gameplay. Ports on earlier systems like the Atari home consoles featured simplified graphics, while later systems such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and PlayStation featured updated graphics. Later titles include several modes of gameplay and integrate new elements into the original design. For example, Space Invaders Extreme, released on the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable, integrated musical elements into the standard gameplay. A spin-off for WiiWare, Space Invaders Get Even, allows players to control the aliens instead of the laser cannon.In 1980, Bally Midway released a pinball version of the game. However, few elements from the original game are included, and the aliens instead resemble the xenomorphs from the film Alien; Bally Midway was later sued over the game's resemblance to designs by H. R. Giger. Different ports have been met with mixed receptions; the Atari 2600 version was very successful while the Nintendo Entertainment System version was poorly received.Taito has released several arcade sequels that built upon the basic design of the original. The first was Space Invaders Part II in 1979; it featured color graphics, an attract mode, and new gameplay elements, and added an intermission between gameplay. According to the Killer List of Video Games, this was the first video game to include an intermission. The game also allowed the player with the top score to sign their name on the high score table. This version was released in the United States as Deluxe Space Invaders (also known as Space Invaders Deluxe), but featured a different graphical color scheme and a lunar-city background. Another arcade sequel, titled Space Invaders II, was released exclusively in the United States. It was in a cocktail-table format with very fast alien firing and a competitive two-player mode. During the summer of 1985, Return of the Invaders was released with updated color graphics, and more complex movements and attack patterns for the aliens. Subsequent arcade sequels included Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX, and Space Invaders '95. Each game introduced minor gameplay additions to the original design. Like the original game, several of the arcade sequels have become collector's items, though some are considered rarer. In 2002, Taito released Space Raiders, a third-person shooter reminiscent of Space Invaders.The game and its related games have been included in video game compilation titles. Space Invaders Anniversary was released in 2003 for the PlayStation 2 and included nine Space Invader variants. A similar title for the PlayStation Portable, Space Invaders Pocket, was released in 2005. Space Invaders, Space Invaders Part II and Return of the Invaders are included in Taito Legends, a compilation of Taito's classic arcade games released in 2005 on the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC. Super Space Invaders '91, Space Invaders DX and Space Invaders '95 were included in Taito Legends 2, a sequel compilation released in 2006.In popular cultureA photograph of an orchestra on a dimly lit stage. Above the group is a projection screen with a black, white, and green image of pixel art. The pixel art is of an oval object wearing headphones with eyes and four tentacles. Below the pixel art is the phrase "Video Games Live".A pixelated alien graphic used at the concert event Video Games LiveMany publications and websites use the pixelated alien graphic as an icon for video games in general, including video game magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly, technology website Ars Technica, and concert event Video Games Live. There have also been Space Invaders themed merchandising, including necklaces and puzzles.The game—and references to it—has appeared in numerous facets of popular culture. Soon after the game's release, hundreds of favourable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium popularized by Space Invaders aired on television and were printed in newspapers and magazines. The Space Invaders Tournament held by Atari in 1980 was the first electronic sports event and attracted more than 10,000 participants, establishing video gaming as a mainstream hobby. The Arcade Awards ceremony was created that same year to honour the best video games, with Space Invaders winning the first Game of the Year award. The impact of Space Invaders on the video game industry has been compared to that of The Beatles in the pop music industry. Considered "the first blockbuster video game," Space Invaders became synonymous with video games worldwide for some time.Within a year of the game's release, the Japanese PTA unsuccessfully attempted to ban the game for allegedly inspiring truancy. In North America, doctors identified a condition called the "Space Invaders elbow" as a complaint, while a physician in The New England Journal of Medicine named a similar ailment the "Space Invaders Wrist." Space Invaders was also the first game to attract political controversy, when a 1981 Private Member's Bill called the "Control of Space Invaders (and other Electronic Games) Bill" drafted by British Labour Party MP George Foulkes attempted to ban the game for its "addictive properties" and for causing "deviancy"; a motion to bring the bill before Parliament was briefly debated but defeated by 114 votes to 94 votes – the bill itself was never considered by Parliament.MusicMusicians drew inspiration for their music from Space Invaders. Video Games Live performed audio from the game as part of a special retro "Classic Arcade Medley".The pioneering Japanese synthpop group Yellow Magic Orchestra reproduced Space Invaders sounds in its 1978 self-titled album and its hit single "Computer Game", the latter selling over 400,000 copies in the United States.Other pop songs based on Space Invaders soon followed, including disco records such as "Disco Space Invaders" (1979) by Funny Stuff, and the hit songs "Space Invader" (1980) by The Pretenders, "Space Invaders" (1980) by Uncle Vic and the Australian hit "Space Invaders" (1979) by Player One (known in the US as Playback), which in turn provided the bassline for Jesse Saunders' "On and On" (1984), the first Chicago house music track.Space Invaders is referenced in the lyrics to Rush's 1981 hit song "Tom Sawyer," and the game is singled out for special thanks in the liner notes to the band's Permanent Waves album.The game was also sampled in I-F's "Space Invaders Are Smoking Grass" (1997), the first electroclash record.In honor of the game's 30th anniversary, Taito produced an album titled Space Invaders 2008. The album is published by Avex Trax and features music inspired by the game. Taito's store Taito Station also unveiled a Space Invaders themed music video.TelevisionMultiple television series have aired episodes that either reference or parody the game and its elements; for example, Danger Mouse, That '70s Show, Scrubs, Chuck, Robot Chicken. and The Amazing World of Gumball.Elements are prominently featured in the "Raiders of the Lost Arcade" segment of "Anthology of Interest II", an episode of Futurama.OtherIn 2006, the game was one of several video game related media selected to represent Japan as part of a project compiled by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs.In the same year, Space Invaders was included in the London Science Museum's Game On exhibition meant to showcase the various aspects of video game history, development, and culture.The game is also a part of the Barbican Centre's traveling Game On exhibition.At the Belluard Bollwerk International 2006 festival in Fribourg, Switzerland, Guillaume Reymond created a three-minute video recreation of a game of Space Invaders as part of the "Gameover" project using humans as pixels.The GH ART exhibit at the 2008 Games Convention in Leipzig, Germany, included an art game, Invaders!, based on Space Invaders's gameplay. The creator later asked for the game to be removed from the exhibit following criticism of elements based on the September 11 attacks in the United States.There is a bridge in Cáceres, Spain, projected by engineers Pedro Plasencia and Hadrián Arias whose pavement design is based on this game. The laser cannon, some shoots and several figures can be seen on the deck.
Platform: PC Release Year: 1992 Game: Duke Nukem Region Code: NTSC-U/C (US/Canada) Genre: Shooter Not brand new: Has light wear Rating: E - Everyone I do not know if correct video: See all details. Not new